We are seeing the convergence of novel sensing and display technologies in warfighter training and operations in the real world, using augmented reality (AR) technologies, or in virtual reality (VR), using augmented virtuality (AV) approaches. WP1: There is no common denominator that would enable one to collect and compare “presence” measurements across different stages of Milgram’s reality-virtuality continuum. While the dimensions of “immersion” might be characterized objectively, presence, co-presence, social presence and simulator sickness cannot. WP2: There is no common theory of visualization and perception, based on sensory stimuli, nor how these may be presented to and perceived by the observer, nor underlying mental models and approaches for visualization techniques. WP3: A primary problem in AR is real-virtual inconsistency. The conventional approach is to make the virtual mimic the real. Could one achieve benefit by making the real mimic the virtual? WP4: AR environments seek to reflect the spontaneity of the real world, which creates challenges as developers cannot a priori prepare for, act on, or affect real events as in VR.