Ryan Schubert; Gerd Bruder; Alyssa Tanaka; Francisco Guido-Sanz; Gregory F. Welch
Mixed Reality Technology Capabilities for Combat-Casualty Handoff Training Inproceedings
In: Chen, Jessie Y. C.; Fragomeni, Gino (Ed.): International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 695-711, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2021, ISBN: 978-3-030-77599-5.
Patient handoffs are a common, yet frequently error prone occurrence, particularly in complex or challenging battlefield situations.
Specific protocols exist to help simplify and reinforce conveying of necessary information during a combat-casualty handoff, and training can both reinforce correct behavior and protocol usage while providing relatively safe initial exposure to many of the complexities and variabilities of real handoff situations, before a patient’s life is at stake. Here we discuss a variety of mixed reality capabilities and training contexts that can manipulate many of these handoff complexities in a controlled manner. We finally discuss some future human-subject user study design considerations, including aspects of handoff training, evaluation or improvement of a specific handoff protocol, and how the same technology could be leveraged for operational use.
Zubin Choudhary; Matt Gottsacker; Kangsoo Kim; Ryan Schubert; Jeanine Stefanucci; Gerd Bruder; Greg Welch
Revisiting Distance Perception with Scaled Embodied Cues in Social Virtual Reality Inproceedings
In: IEEE Virtual Reality (VR), 2021, 2021.
Previous research on distance estimation in virtual reality (VR) has well established that even for geometrically accurate virtual objects and environments users tend to systematically misestimate distances. This has implications for Social VR, where it introduces variables in personal space and proxemics behavior that change social behaviors compared to the real world. One yet unexplored factor is related to the trend that avatars’ embodied cues in Social VR are often scaled, e.g., by making one’s head bigger or one’s voice louder, to make social cues more pronounced over longer distances.
In this paper we investigate how the perception of avatar distance is changed based on two means for scaling embodied social cues: visual head scale and verbal volume scale. We conducted a human subject study employing a mixed factorial design with two Social VR avatar representations (full-body, head-only) as a between factor as well as three visual head scales and three verbal volume scales (up-scaled, accurate, down-scaled) as within factors. For three distances from social to far-public space, we found that visual head scale had a significant effect on distance judgments and should be tuned for Social VR, while conflicting verbal volume scales did not, indicating that voices can be scaled in Social VR without immediate repercussions on spatial estimates. We discuss the interactions between the factors and implications for Social VR.
Gregory F Welch; Ryan Schubert; Gerd Bruder; Derrick P Stockdreher; Adam Casebolt
Augmented Reality Promises Mentally and Physically Stressful Training in Real Places Journal Article
In: IACLEA Campus Law Enforcement Journal, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 47–50, 2020.
Austin Erickson; Nahal Norouzi; Kangsoo Kim; Ryan Schubert; Jonathan Jules; Joseph J. LaViola Jr.; Gerd Bruder; Gregory F. Welch
Sharing gaze rays for visual target identification tasks in collaborative augmented reality Journal Article
In: Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces: Special Issue on Multimodal Interfaces and Communication Cues for Remote Collaboration, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 353-371, 2020, ISSN: 1783-8738.
Augmented reality (AR) technologies provide a shared platform for users to collaborate in a physical context involving both real and virtual content. To enhance the quality of interaction between AR users, researchers have proposed augmenting users’ interpersonal space with embodied cues such as their gaze direction. While beneficial in achieving improved interpersonal spatial communication, such shared gaze environments suffer from multiple types of errors related to eye tracking and networking, that can reduce objective performance and subjective experience. In this paper, we present a human-subjects study to understand the impact of accuracy, precision, latency, and dropout based errors on users’ performance when using shared gaze cues to identify a target among a crowd of people. We simulated varying amounts of errors and the target distances and measured participants’ objective performance through their response time and error rate, and their subjective experience and cognitive load through questionnaires. We found significant differences suggesting that the simulated error levels had stronger effects on participants’ performance than target distance with accuracy and latency having a high impact on participants’ error rate. We also observed that participants assessed their own performance as lower than it objectively was. We discuss implications for practical shared gaze applications and we present a multi-user prototype system.
Salam Daher; Jason Hochreiter; Ryan Schubert; Laura Gonzalez; Juan Cendan; Mindi Anderson; Desiree A Diaz; Gregory F. Welch
The Physical-Virtual Patient Simulator: A Physical Human Form with Virtual Appearance and Behavior Journal Article
In: Simulation in Healthcare, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 115–121, 2020, (see erratum at DOI: 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000481).
Austin Erickson; Ryan Schubert; Kangsoo Kim; Gerd Bruder; Greg Welch
Is It Cold in Here or Is It Just Me? Analysis of Augmented Reality Temperature Visualization for Computer-Mediated Thermoception Inproceedings
In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), pp. 319-327, IEEE, 2019, ISBN: 978-1-7281-4765-9.
Modern augmented reality (AR) head-mounted displays comprise a multitude of sensors that allow them to sense the environment around them. We have extended these capabilities by mounting two heat-wavelength infrared cameras to a Microsoft HoloLens, facilitating the acquisition of thermal data and enabling stereoscopic thermal overlays in the user’s augmented view. The ability to visualize live thermal information opens several avenues of investigation on how that thermal awareness may affect a user’s thermoception. We present a human-subject study, in which we simulated different temperature shifts using either heat vision overlays or 3D AR virtual effects associated with thermal cause-effect relationships (e.g., ﬂames burn and ice cools). We further investigated differences in estimated temperatures when the stimuli were applied to either the user’s body or their environment. Our analysis showed signiﬁcant effects and ﬁrst trends for the AR virtual effects and heat vision, respectively, on participants’ temperature estimates for their body and the environment though with different strengths and characteristics, which we discuss in this paper.
Kendra Richards; Nikhil Mahalanobis; Kangsoo Kim; Ryan Schubert; Myungho Lee; Salam Daher; Nahal Norouzi; Jason Hochreiter; Gerd Bruder; Gregory F. Welch
Analysis of Peripheral Vision and Vibrotactile Feedback During Proximal Search Tasks with Dynamic Virtual Entities in Augmented Reality Inproceedings
In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Spatial User Interaction (SUI), pp. 3:1-3:9, ACM, 2019, ISBN: 978-1-4503-6975-6/19/10.
A primary goal of augmented reality (AR) is to seamlessly embed virtual content into a real environment. There are many factors that can affect the perceived physicality and co-presence of virtual entities, including the hardware capabilities, the fidelity of the virtual behaviors, and sensory feedback associated with the interactions. In this paper, we present a study investigating participants' perceptions and behaviors during a time-limited search task in close proximity with virtual entities in AR. In particular, we analyze the effects of (i) visual conflicts in the periphery of an optical see-through head-mounted display, a Microsoft HoloLens, (ii) overall lighting in the physical environment, and (iii) multimodal feedback based on vibrotactile transducers mounted on a physical platform. Our results show significant benefits of vibrotactile feedback and reduced peripheral lighting for spatial and social presence, and engagement. We discuss implications of these effects for AR applications.
Nahal Norouzi; Austin Erickson; Kangsoo Kim; Ryan Schubert; Joseph J. LaViola Jr.; Gerd Bruder; Gregory F. Welch
Effects of Shared Gaze Parameters on Visual Target Identification Task Performance in Augmented Reality Inproceedings
In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Spatial User Interaction (SUI), pp. 12:1-12:11, ACM, 2019, ISBN: 978-1-4503-6975-6/19/10, (Best Paper Award).
Augmented reality (AR) technologies provide a shared platform for users to collaborate in a physical context involving both real and virtual content. To enhance the quality of interaction between AR users, researchers have proposed augmenting users' interpersonal space with embodied cues such as their gaze direction. While beneficial in achieving improved interpersonal spatial communication, such shared gaze environments suffer from multiple types of errors related to eye tracking and networking, that can reduce objective performance and subjective experience.
In this paper, we conducted a human-subject study to understand the impact of accuracy, precision, latency, and dropout based errors on users' performance when using shared gaze cues to identify a target among a crowd of people. We simulated varying amounts of errors and the target distances and measured participants' objective performance through their response time and error rate, and their subjective experience and cognitive load through questionnaires. We found some significant differences suggesting that the simulated error levels had stronger effects on participants' performance than target distance with accuracy and latency having a high impact on participants' error rate. We also observed that participants assessed their own performance as lower than it objectively was, and we discuss implications for practical shared gaze applications.
Nahal Norouzi; Kangsoo Kim; Myungho Lee; Ryan Schubert; Austin Erickson; Jeremy Bailenson; Gerd Bruder; Greg Welch
Walking Your Virtual Dog: Analysis of Awareness and Proxemics with Simulated Support Animals in Augmented Reality Inproceedings
In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), 2019, pp. 253-264, IEEE, 2019, ISBN: 978-1-7281-4765-9.
Domestic animals have a long history of enriching human lives physically and mentally by filling a variety of different roles, such as service animals, emotional support animals, companions, and pets. Despite this, technological realizations of such animals in augmented reality (AR) are largely underexplored in terms of their behavior and interactions as well as effects they might have on human users' perception or behavior. In this paper, we describe a simulated virtual companion animal, in the form of a dog, in a shared AR space. We investigated its effects on participants' perception and behavior, including locomotion related to proxemics, with respect to their AR dog and other real people in the environment. We conducted a 2 by 2 mixed factorial human-subject study, in which we varied (i) the AR dog's awareness and behavior with respect to other people in the physical environment and (ii) the awareness and behavior of those people with respect to the AR dog. Our results show that having an AR companion dog changes participants' locomotion behavior, proxemics, and social interaction with other people who can or can not see the AR dog. We also show that the AR dog's simulated awareness and behaviors have an impact on participants' perception, including co-presence, animalism, perceived physicality, and dog's perceived awareness of the participant and environment. We discuss our findings and present insights and implications for the realization of effective AR animal companions.
Gregory F. Welch; Gerd Bruder; Peter Squire; Ryan Schubert
Anticipating Widespread Augmented Reality: Insights from the 2018 AR Visioning Workshop Technical Report
University of Central Florida and Office of Naval Research no. 786, 2019.
In August of 2018 a group of academic, government, and industry experts in the field of Augmented Reality gathered for four days to consider potential technological and societal issues and opportunities that could accompany a future where AR is pervasive in location and duration of use. This report is intended to summarize some of the most novel and potentially impactful insights and opportunities identified by the group.
Our target audience includes AR researchers, government leaders, and thought leaders in general. It is our intent to share some compelling technological and societal questions that we believe are unique to AR, and to engender new thinking about the potentially impactful synergies associated with the convergence of AR and some other conventionally distinct areas of research.
Kangsoo Kim; Ryan Schubert; Jason Hochreiter; Gerd Bruder; Gregory Welch
Blowing in the Wind: Increasing Social Presence with a Virtual Human via Environmental Airflow Interaction in Mixed Reality Journal Article
In: Elsevier Computers and Graphics, vol. 83, no. October 2019, pp. 23-32, 2019.
In this paper, we describe two human-subject studies in which we explored and investigated the effects of subtle multimodal interaction on social presence with a virtual human (VH) in mixed reality (MR). In the studies, participants interacted with a VH, which was co-located with them across a table, with two different platforms: a projection based MR environment and an optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD) based MR environment. While the two studies were not intended to be directly comparable, the second study with an OST-HMD was carefully designed based on the insights and lessons learned from the first projection-based study. For both studies, we compared two levels of gradually increased multimodal interaction: (i) virtual objects being affected by real airflow (e.g., as commonly experienced with fans during warm weather), and (ii) a VH showing awareness of this airflow. We hypothesized that our two levels of treatment would increase the sense of being together with the VH gradually, i.e., participants would report higher social presence with airflow influence than without it, and the social presence would be even higher when the VH showed awareness of the airflow. We observed an increased social presence in the second study when both physical–virtual interaction via airflow and VH awareness behaviors were present, but we observed no clear difference in participant-reported social presence with the VH in the first study. As the considered environmental factors are incidental to the direct interaction with the real human, i.e., they are not significant or necessary for the interaction task, they can provide a reasonably generalizable approach to increase social presence in HMD-based MR environments beyond the specific scenario and environment described here.
Salam Daher; Jason Hochreiter; Nahal Norouzi; Ryan Schubert; Gerd Bruder; Laura Gonzalez; Mindi Anderson; Desiree Diaz; Juan Cendan; Greg Welch
[POSTER] Matching vs. Non-Matching Visuals and Shape for Embodied Virtual Healthcare Agents Inproceedings
In: Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality (VR), 2019, 2019.
Embodied virtual agents serving as patient simulators are widely used in medical training scenarios, ranging from physical patients to virtual patients presented via virtual and augmented reality technologies. Physical-virtual patients are a hybrid solution that combines the benefits of dynamic visuals integrated into a human-shaped physical
form that can also present other cues, such as pulse, breathing sounds, and temperature. Sometimes in simulation the visuals and shape do not match. We carried out a human-participant study employing graduate nursing students in pediatric patient simulations comprising conditions associated with matching/non-matching of the visuals and shape.
Ryan Schubert; Gerd Bruder; Greg Welch
Adaptive filtering of physical-virtual artifacts for synthetic animatronics Inproceedings
In: Bruder, G.; Cobb, S.; Yoshimoto, S. (Ed.): ICAT-EGVE 2018 - International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence and Eurographics Symposium on Virtual Environments, Limassol, Cyprus, November 7-9 2018, 2018.