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Nahal Norouzi; Luke Bölling; Gerd Bruder; Gregory F. Welch
Augmented Rotations in Virtual Reality for Users with a Reduced Range of Head Movement Journal Article
In: Journal of Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies Engineering, vol. 6, pp. 1-9, 2019.
Introduction: A large body of research in the field of virtual reality (VR) is focused on making user interfaces more natural and intuitive by leveraging natural body movements to explore a virtual environment. For example, head-tracked user interfaces allow users to naturally look around a virtual space by moving their head. However, such approaches may not be appropriate for users with temporary or permanent limitations of their head movement.
Methods: In this paper, we present techniques that allow these users to get virtual benefits from a reduced range of physical movements. Specifically, we describe two techniques that augment virtual rotations relative to physical movement thresholds.
Results: We describe how each of the two techniques can be implemented with either a head tracker or an eye tracker,e.g., in cases when no physical head rotations are possible.
Conclusions: We discuss their differences and limitations and we provide guidelines for the practical use of such augmented user interfaces.
Salam Daher; Jason Hochreiter; Nahal Norouzi; Ryan Schubert; Gerd Bruder; Laura Gonzalez; Mindi Anderson; Desiree Diaz; Juan Cendan; Greg Welch
[POSTER] Matching vs. Non-Matching Visuals and Shape for Embodied Virtual Healthcare Agents Inproceedings
In: Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality (VR), 2019, 2019.
Embodied virtual agents serving as patient simulators are widely used in medical training scenarios, ranging from physical patients to virtual patients presented via virtual and augmented reality technologies. Physical-virtual patients are a hybrid solution that combines the benefits of dynamic visuals integrated into a human-shaped physical
form that can also present other cues, such as pulse, breathing sounds, and temperature. Sometimes in simulation the visuals and shape do not match. We carried out a human-participant study employing graduate nursing students in pediatric patient simulations comprising conditions associated with matching/non-matching of the visuals and shape.
Nahal Norouzi; Gerd Bruder; Brandon Belna; Stefanie Mutter; Damla Turgut; Greg Welch
A Systematic Review of the Convergence of Augmented Reality, Intelligent Virtual Agents, and the Internet of Things Book Chapter
In: Artificial Intelligence in IoT, pp. 37, Springer, 2019, ISBN: 978-3-030-04109-0.
In recent years we are beginning to see the convergence of three distinct research fields: Augmented Reality (AR), Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs), and the Internet of Things (IoT). Each of these has been classified as a disruptive technology for our society. Since their inception, the advancement of knowledge and development of technologies and systems in these fields was traditionally performed with limited input from each other. However, over the last years, we have seen research prototypes and commercial products being developed that cross the boundaries between these distinct fields to leverage their collective strengths. In this review paper, we resume the body of literature published at the intersections between each two of these fields, and we discuss a vision for the nexus of all three technologies.
Myungho Lee; Nahal Norouzi; Gerd Bruder; Pamela J. Wisniewski; Gregory F. Welch
The Physical-virtual Table: Exploring the Effects of a Virtual Human's Physical Influence on Social Interaction Inproceedings
In: Proceedings of the 24th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 25:1–25:11, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2018, ISBN: 978-1-4503-6086-9, (Best Paper Award).
In this paper, we investigate the effects of the physical influence of a virtual human (VH) in the context of face-to-face interaction in augmented reality (AR). In our study, participants played a tabletop game with a VH, in which each player takes a turn and moves their own token along the designated spots on the shared table. We com- pared two conditions as follows: the VH in the virtual condition moves a virtual token that can only be seen through AR glasses, while the VH in the physical condition moves a physical token as the participants do; therefore the VH’s token can be seen even in the periphery of the AR glasses. For the physical condition, we designed an actuator system underneath the table. The actuator moves a magnet under the table which then moves the VH’s phys- ical token over the surface of the table. Our results indicate that participants felt higher co-presence with the VH in the physical condition, and participants assessed the VH as a more physical entity compared to the VH in the virtual condition. We further ob- served transference effects when participants attributed the VH’s ability to move physical objects to other elements in the real world. Also, the VH’s physical influence improved participants’ overall experience with the VH. We discuss potential explanations for the findings and implications for future shared AR tabletop setups.
Nahal Norouzi; Kangsoo Kim; Jason Hochreiter; Myungho Lee; Salam Daher; Gerd Bruder; Gregory Welch
A Systematic Survey of 15 Years of User Studies Published in the Intelligent Virtual Agents Conference Inproceedings
In: IVA '18 Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, pp. 17-22, ACM ACM, 2018, ISBN: 978-1-4503-6013-5/18/11.
The field of intelligent virtual agents (IVAs) has evolved immensely over the past 15 years, introducing new application opportunities in areas such as training, health care, and virtual assistants. In this survey paper, we provide a systematic review of the most influential user studies published in the IVA conference from 2001 to 2015 focusing on IVA development, human perception, and interactions. A total of 247 papers with 276 user studies have been classified and reviewed based on their contributions and impact. We identify the different areas of research and provide a summary of the papers with the highest impact. With the trends of past user studies and the current state of technology, we provide insights into future trends and research challenges.
Salam Daher; Jason Hochreiter; Nahal Norouzi; Laura Gonzalez; Gerd Bruder; Greg Welch
Physical-Virtual Agents for Healthcare Simulation Inproceedings
In: Proceedings of IVA 2018, November 5-8, 2018, Sydney, NSW, Australia, ACM, 2018.
Conventional Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs) focus primarily on the visual and auditory channels for both the agent and the interacting human: the agent displays a visual appearance and speech as output, while processing the human’s verbal and non-verbal behavior as input. However, some interactions, particularly those between a patient and healthcare provider, inherently include tactile components.We introduce an Intelligent Physical-Virtual Agent (IPVA) head that occupies an appropriate physical volume; can be touched; and via human-in-the-loop control can change appearance, listen, speak, and react physiologically in response to human behavior. Compared to a traditional IVA, it provides a physical affordance, allowing for more realistic and compelling human-agent interactions. In a user study focusing on neurological assessment of a simulated patient showing stroke symptoms, we compared the IPVA head with a high-fidelity touch-aware mannequin that has a static appearance. Various measures of the human subjects indicated greater attention, affinity for, and presence with the IPVA patient, all factors that can improve healthcare training.
Nahal Norouzi; Luke Bölling; Gerd Bruder; Greg Welch
Augmented Rotations in Virtual Reality for Users with a Reduced Range of Head Movement Inproceedings
In: Proceedings of the 12th international conference on disability, virtual reality and associated technologies (ICDVRAT 2018), pp. 8, 2018, ISBN: 978-0-7049-1548-0.
A large body of research in the field of virtual reality (VR) is focused on making user interfaces more natural and intuitive by leveraging natural body movements to explore a virtual environment. For example, head-tracked user interfaces allow users to naturally look around a virtual space by moving their head. However, such approaches may not be appropriate for users with temporary or permanent limitations of their head movement. In this paper, we present techniques that allow these users to get full-movement benefits from a reduced range of physical movements. Specifically, we describe two techniques that augment virtual rotations relative to physical movement thresholds. We describe how each of the two techniques can be implemented with either a head tracker or an eye tracker, e.g., in cases when no physical head rotations are possible. We discuss their differences and limitations and we provide guidelines for the practical use of such augmented user interfaces.
Nahal Norouzi; Gerd Bruder; Greg Welch
Assessing Vignetting as a Means to Reduce VR Sickness During Amplified Head Rotations Inproceedings
In: ACM Symposium on Applied Perception 2018, pp. 8, ACM 2018, ISBN: 978-1-4503-5894-1/18/08.
Redirected and amplified head movements have the potential to provide more natural interaction with virtual environments (VEs) than using controller-based input, which causes large discrepancies between visual and vestibular self-motion cues and leads to increased VR sickness.
However, such amplified head movements may also exacerbate VR sickness symptoms over no amplification.
Several general methods have been introduced to reduce VR sickness for controller-based input inside a VE, including a popular vignetting method that gradually reduces the field of view.
In this paper, we investigate the use of vignetting to reduce VR sickness when using amplified head rotations instead of controller-based input.
We also investigate whether the induced VR sickness is a result of the user's head acceleration or velocity by introducing two different modes of vignetting, one triggered by acceleration and the other by velocity.
Our dependent measures were pre and post VR sickness questionnaires as well as estimated discomfort levels that were assessed each minute of the experiment.
Our results show interesting effects between a baseline condition without vignetting, as well as the two vignetting methods, generally indicating that the vignetting methods did not succeed in reducing VR sickness for most of the participants and, instead, lead to a significant increase.
We discuss the results and potential explanations of our findings.
Ladda Thiamwong; Nahal Norouzi; Gregory Welch
[POSTER] Fear of falling and eye movement behavior in young adults and older adults during walking: A case study Inproceedings
In: 39th Annual Southern Gerontological Society Meeting, Buford, GA USA, 2018.